Pat the capers dry with a paper towel or dish towel and divide into two 2 tablespoon portions.
Season the chicken thighs on both sides with salt and pepper and set aside.
Crush the garlic cloves while they are still in their skins with the side of a good chef’s knife. Peel the cloves and discard the skins.
Zest and juice the lemon. Set both aside.
Add 2-3 tablespoon olive oil to a large skillet over medium heat on the stove top. Once oil is hot, add the crushed garlic cloves, anchovies, half of the capers, and a pinch of crushed red pepper. (We are saving the other half of the capers to finish the sauce at the end.)
Use a wooden spoon or silicone spatula to break up the anchovies as the sauce cooks. Continue cooking until the garlic is lightly browned and the capers are crispy, about 3 – 5 minutes.
Add the chicken thighs to the pan and let them brown on one side, 5 – 7 minutes. Flip them over, cover the pan, and let cook for another 7 minutes or so. Meanwhile, chop up your parsley.
Once the thighs are cooked through, remove them from the pan and set aside on a serving platter.
Turn the heat down to medium, add the lemon zest, lemon juice and remaining capers. Stir for about a minute until it’s heated through, then pour over the top of the chicken thighs. Top with chopped parsley and serve.